Please read first because this Assignment is for correction. Please, read through the corrections before sending me messages. Because, if you don’t I will not response to your messages. Also, I will attached two more articles for whoever I choose to help me with this assignment. In addition, please, remove the introduction, and also attach a sample of a “Needs Assessment” Topic Needs Assessment Title: HIV among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Section 1: Background InformationAll of this is opinion and needs to come out.Sex is seemingly as old as the world is. However, sex among men, and especially young men having sex with men has not always been in the books of history. This is arguably one of the latest practices, although some sources have claims of sex among men after the antediluvian period. While sex has positive effects such as procreation, there are some negative effects which include contraction of deadly sexually transmitted diseases. One such disease is HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS is an acronym for Human ImmunoDefiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome not capitalized. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015) shows that while over one million people aged above 13 years of age were living with the disease in the US by the year 2014, with an average of 40,000 new infections are recorded each year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2015) when you use the word while…it indicates as opposite statement coming..and that is not what this sentence did. The high number of people who are ignorant about their HIV status and those who purposely choose to ignore it has continued to increase the risk levels for other uninfected people in the world, among them being young men who have sex with men isn’t it possible that they are one of the above?. In this areas and/or introduction…you should be discussing morbidity, mortality,….you need to highlight incidence is higher in this group than in othersIntroductionThe issue of young men having sex with other men has continued to be a thorny issue for a number of years, dividing the society between those who support this practice and those who oppose it. Supporters of young men having sex with other men argue that people have a right to decide their sexual orientation and preferences without undue pressure from external forces. However, those who oppose this practice argue that it emanated from social decay and as such should not be supported. One common point of agreement between these two camps is that the practice of young men having sex with men is risk and has the capability to cause grave danger to these men. opinionAlthough sex even among heterosexual could turn out to be risk and a cause of contraction of dangerous sexually transmitted diseases and infections, the risk of contraction of such health complications is doubly higher among young men who have sex with other men. <make this more succinct so that it moves into the risk factors.There are several reasons that contribute to this increased risk level which includes lack of health education, lack of safe and effective delivery of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), homelessness, and poverty. Risk Factors: Lack of health education is where lower pay and fewer assets imply that individuals with less instruction will probably live in low-wage neighborhoods that do not have the assets for good education wellbeing lack of health education has nothing to do with poverty? Lack of education might? Also you cannot say will probably…you need to state a fact and support it with evidence from your reading. I am not sure there is “evidence” that lack of health education puts this group more at risk than other groups.. For example, most young men of color who do have sex with men are high school dropouts, from low wage homes (Dawn et al, 2012). [Just made this correction citation?] Where did you get this fact?<this is supporting poverty, lack of employment, lack of education…not lack of health education?, and see it as a means of survival with good knowledge or education of the end result. HIV/AIDS is an acronym for Human ImmunoDefiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. This is one of the deadliest sexually transmitted diseases which acts by weakening a patient’s immune system to a point where it cannot fight even the weakest virus or bacterial infection. As a result, the victim falls prey to any infection that comes their way, often referred to as opportunistic disease that in most of the HIV cases result to the death of the victim. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) seem to worst hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, seeing that in the year 2009, the vast majority of new infections, up to 64% of the infections, were recorded among the people in this group (Dawn et al, 2012). While there are many ways of preventing contraction of the disease or even boosting the immune response in order to suppress the effects of the viral disease, the causes and risk factors associated with this disease are overwhelmingly numerous as will be discussed below. <this should not be here…the only thing you should have in this section of your paper is the discussion of the risk factors you ID above. Also…eliminate terms like victim, prey…this needs to be factual, not opinionated or editorialized.Lack of safe and effective delivery of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to the young men who have sex with men is one of the problematic issues facing the young men who have sex with other men. Being a high risk practice, these young men who have sex with other men need to adhere to the effective and proper use of preventive drugs in order to keep them safe from contracting some sexually transmitted diseases. In as much as the government realizes this, there are no proven? effective strategies to ensure that these people access and use their medications I think there is?. One thing that should be appreciated is that while the medications may not be accessible to all, they are sometimes provided free of charge or at subsidized prices in most of the facilities where they are available. Some of the facilities, however, are located in places where they are unreachable. Some regions have just a few medical facilities reword, a factor that to a very large extent denies YMSM access to the medications. It seemingly does not make sense to many people who are in eminent danger of HIV infection the reason why they should travel for long, distance, to access drugs they are not even sure they might require, since some are ignorant about the danger they are exposed to. Therefore, the distance between the people and the facilities where they can access the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis makes the delivery method ineffective. There are some other issues that make access difficult…they are very important.In other places where the medical facilities that provide the supplement and medications are often situated at inconvenient locations. The inconvenience of these places could be in terms of their openness that makes the people in danger feel embarrassed to access them, or too hidden that they can hardly be found.this needs rewording…this is all true, but needs to be stated more clearly and more directly related to access. When such facilities are located at inconvenient places, access to antiretroviral medications and other prophylaxis drugs is not effective, compounding the already delicate situation among the young men who have sex with other men. There are many other reasons why sometimes the young men that have sex with other men may not be able to access preventive medication, a factor which puts them at greater risk of easily contracting sexually transmitted diseases. It is quite alarming to notice that the number of new infections among young men who have sex with men increased to a whopping <use objective terminiology/prose 48% in the 4-year period between 2006 and 2009, most of these men being in their early and late teen years(Dawn et al, 2012). Poverty is a high-risk factor for young men who have sex with men. Poverty denies the young men and opportunity to secure a health insuranceisn’t health insurance an accessibility issue? Poor people can get medicaid???? cover in order to make them access proper medical assistance to help prevent infection with HIV, or manage the disease once infected. As reported by Dawn K. Smith and his colleagues (year), increasing cost of medication has the potential to hinder people from being willing to pay for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis drugs. In the study, most participants felt that a price above $50 for the drugs within one month would hinder them from having the willingness to buy the drugs. Even then, some of the participants felt that there is need for a further price reduction in order to ensure the drugs are accessible to most people. Poverty further makes the young men become subject to sexual manipulation by other people in exchange for a few financial favors, exposing them to great risk of infection (Abara et al, 2017). Your risk factors include homelessness (which should be discussed before poverty…and then there are no other factors listed above…so there should not be any risk factors discussed after poverty. If it is a risk factor you are addressing…put it above…if not….take the rest of this out.High drop-out rate from high schoolnot listed above? is one of the most notorious risk factors for young men who have sex with men. Dropping out of schools could be caused by several factors such as lack of money to pay for school services, peer pressure, lack of motivation due to constant failure or even poverty<t. Whatever the reason, dropping out of school exposes a young man to a life of joblessness, in that they have nothing to keep their minds occupied. As a result, the excessive free time and the urge to make quick money act as catalysts for these men to consider engaging in risky sexual behaviors<rephrase more succinctly. Irresponsiblevalue laden? sexual activities such as these do not often have enough time to consider evaluating the consequences of the actions taken, as a result, the drop out continually engages in risky sexual behavior such as bare backing or failure to adhere to the use of antiretroviral drugs<this is important, but it is not related to high school drop outs., a move that puts them in grave danger of contracting not only one strain of HIV but several strains as they progress with the activities. In addition, most drops out are closely linked to local gangsnot listed as a risk factor—I didn’t read this section. who view irresponsible living as their emblem to gain the feeling of social equality. As a result, members of such a gang will be doubly exposed to the infection of HIV through irresponsible sexual behaviors more than those who are still in school and not members of such gangs. Missing out on school also exposes the young men to the danger of contracting HIV since they alienate themselves from accessing school-based HIV prevention facilities which would have been of great help to them had they remained in school.Homeless out of order youth are more exposed to risky sexual behaviors that expose them to infection with HIV. Being homeless, these people are hardly ever located at a constant place, hence they might have difficulty locating the nearest health center where they can access medical assistance whenever they need the assistance (Abara et al, 2017). In addition, being homeless exposes the young men who have sex with men to sexual predators who will stop at nothing short of harassing the vulnerable young men for sexual desires. When this happens, an act that would arguably be considered as rape, these young men may be exposed to grave danger such as infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, the trauma associated with such a forceful action may inhibit the young men from speaking up and thus accessing medical assistance. Homeless youths are also exposed to dangers of HIV because of the fact that they have no specific place to sleep hence may be forced to go to any extent, even having sex with people they do not know just so that they can have a place to sleep. The high level of desperation exposes the young men to manipulation by other irresponsible people. Get rid of value laden speech and make more succinct and pointed.High unemployment did not read..not listed above rate is another risk factor that has continued to inhibit the successful taming of the spread and management of HIV among young men who have sex with other men. During the study of the attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), the researchers found that among the teens boys who had sex with other men mainly in regions with high risk levels, only a few were covered by a private insurance cover, and while more were covered by a public health insurance cover, some of them were still not covered by any. The main reason why these young men were unable to access medical help was because they simply could not afford it (Dawn et al, 2012). Being unemployed and thus with scarce monetary resources, the little money that the young men is directed to better uses, some of which are physically more pressing that a scare about a disease whose manifestations the victims cannot see. Unemployment and thus lack of money did not only hinder the young men from securing a health insurance, but also from accessing medical facilities to receive treatment. Traveling to medical facilities far from one’s location was difficult since it requires one to have enough money to cater for traveling and even food during the travel. This monetary demand hit the unemployed youths very hard that they opted to ignore the amount of risk they were exposed to.The HIV pandemic is continuing to devourWC is not objective thousands by the day, and if it is not tamed any time soon, there is a possibility that even more young men, especially those who have sex with men will fall prey to the disease. There is need for all concerned stakeholders to come up and develop strategies and programs that address this public health issues. that will be of great help in helping the young men who have sex with other men to come out of the danger zone. Other successful programs at YMSMThe program that has managed content analysis of the YMSM breakout and preventions sessions involved the dictation and coding of verbal and written manuscript verbatim into categorical thematic units. Once the text is write down and categorically implied, the constant comparison method is utilized to document similarities and dissimilarities in the text and themes that emerged through content analyses of the breakout and prevention discussion sessions<this makes no sense in relation to programming…do you know what this means? What is the citation?. The constant comparison method also captured patterns and prominent themes that emerged from the merging of transcribed YMSM text and dissection of transcribed YMSM text into thematic units. Following the constant comparison of thematic units, several memos are created to summarize the results of the breakout session discussions’ categorical thematic units. Finally, the triangulation was performed through the simultaneous analysis of the categorized thematic units, DVD-recorded summary of the breakout and prevention discussion, and other sources of data (Isbell, MT., 2010)This programs include information about partner reduction, gauging one’s own predisposition, the relative risk of specific behaviors (e.g., anal sex vs. oral sex), and other ways to reduce HIV risk beyond abstinence and condom use. Recent studies show the promise of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for preventing HIV infection, but research efforts suffer from disproportionately low representation of the youth who are most at risk. Youth-focused research is critical and should include behavioral, community, and biomedical interventions to create a comprehensive HIV prevention package.Not clear…either get this re-worded to describe the program more clearly or eliminate it.Section 2: Purpose of the GrantThe purpose of this program is to increase the percentage of YMSM of color and YTG persons of color with diagnosed HIV infection who are virally suppressed, reduce HIV incidence among YMSM of color and YTG persons of color, reduce the death rate among YMSM of color and YTG persons of color with diagnosed HIV infection, and reduce HIV-related disparities in incidence, morbidity, and viral suppression among YMSM of color and YTG persons of color (CDC,2016).Section 3: ResourcesMost of the assets spent keeping up with the brilliant educators required by the FOA PS17-1704. This program is to strengthen the capacity of funded health departments and their collaborative partners (e.g., community-based organizations, clinics, behavioral health and social services providers, patient navigators, and others that interface with MSM of color) to plan, implement, and sustain (through ongoing engagement, assessment, linkage, and retention) comprehensive prevention, care, behavioral health, and social services models for MSM of color at risk for and living with HIV infection as supported. Grantees are likewise constrained in the utilization of system dollars (topped at 48%) to cover a large number of managerial expenses (CDC, 2016). These costs, which are generally on the ascent, include: Resources needed to make this program effective includeØ Education – Lack of health education Ø Engagement – PovertyØ Health Insurance- Lack of safe and effective delivery of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP),Ø Organization-Includes homeless This doesn’t make sense to me—what resources do you need? Are you planning to buy health insurance for people / is that allowed in this grant? You need to tell me what you need (people, things)…..this is too vague for me to comment. Section 4: SummaryThis should be a summary of your paper…explain the problem, morbidity, mortality, incidence, prevalence-in 2-3 sentences. ID the risk factors, make a statement about programming. There is different in accomplishment between young men of color who do have sex with men with HIV positive and of those who are negative but still engage in act. Morbidity in the metropolitan statistical areas with 48% Black and/or Hispanic YMSM living with diagnosed HIV (CDC, 2016)NS not a sentence. Will be focused on MSAs is likely to targeted areas where most YMSM are accessible. Threshold of 48% Black and/or Hispanic YMSM ensures that the participant pool is large enough to have a robust demonstration of the comprehensive prevention and care service models. The mortality rates as reported in the State Progress Report and that have 24% Black and/or Hispanic YMSM living with diagnosed HIV in a specified MSA (CDC, 2016). The study shows that relatively small change will have a major positive impact on the epidemic. Several areas with heavy HIV burdens will see needed increases in prevention funding, including many states and several major cities. While other areas will see decreases, CDC is taking steps to minimize disruptions due to shifts in funding. The new method for allocating resources incorporates a minimum funding level, to ensure that all jurisdictions, regardless of HIV burden, can continue to provide basic HIV prevention services. Funding shifts for all jurisdictions both increases and decreases will be phased in over five years, to allow health departments time to adjust strategies and infrastructure as necessary what you have here doesn’t summarize your paper.. ReferencesAbara, W., Hess, K., Neblett Fanfair, R., Bernstein, K., & Paz-Bailey, G. (2017). Syphilis Trends among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States and Western Europe: A Systematic Review of Trend Studies Published between 2004 and 2015. This is a journal? ???? if this were a book it would have a publisher, if it were a journal…it would have a title? http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/metrics?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0159309 #cited HeaderDawn, K. Smith., Toledo, L., Jo Smith, D., Anne Adams, M., & Rothenberg, R. (2012). Attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (prep) (1st ed.). Atlanta: The Guilford Press.Experiences of community and parental violence among HIV-positive young racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men: AIDS Care: Vol 26, No 7. (2017). There is something wrong withthis…you have it listed as a 1st edition book and as an article in AIDS Care???? http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09540121.2013.861571 Kuhns, L. M., Birkett, M., Mustanski, B., Muth, S. Q., Latkin, C., Ortiz-Estes, I., & Garofalo, R. (2015). Methods for collection of participant-aided sociograms for the study of social, sexual and substance-using networks among young men who have sex with men. Connections what is the #?(02261766), 35(1), 37-50. http://insna.org/connections/v35/v35_1.htmlIsbell, MT., HIV Prevention for gay men and men who have sex with men.Development of a Comprehensive Policy Agenda. AmfAR and Trust for America’s Health, 2010.http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/publications/publications-a-z/547-hivstd-prevention-and-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men
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