Nursing homework help
Nursing Theories & Health Assessment
NUR 3069: Advanced Health Assessment
• Health and health pattern
• Nursing theory
• Health assessment
• Health promotion
Perspectives on Nursing Theory
• What is a theory as opposed to a conceptual framework?
• What is nursing theory?
• How do nursing theories relate to health assessment?
• What theory can nurses use?
Definition of Theory
• Theory: A creative and rigorous structuring of ideas that projects a tentative, purposeful, and systematic view of phenomena.
• Purpose: Theory is developed for a reason that can be identified and specifies the context and situation in which the theory applies.
Why Nursing Theory?
• Nursing theory: • Guides nursing education, research, and practice.
• Strengthens links between nurses in education, research, and practice.
• Contributes to a well-founded basis for practice.
• Helps nurses develop better understanding of factors affecting family function.
• Directs nurses to more specific purposes than merely filling a gap.
• Considers significant factors that influence nursing , and, therefore, helps nurses in nursing-specific situations.
• Florence Nightingale: Environment is the central concept. • Viewed as all external conditions and influences affecting the life and development of an
• Virginia Henderson: Mind and body are inseparable • No two individuals are alike; each is unique (1966).
Nursing Theorists (continued)
• Martha Rogers: • A science of unitary human beings.
• Person-environment are energy fields that evolve negentropically (1970).
• Family system approach.
• Callista Roy: Adaptation/Independence model (1974).
• Dorothea Orem: Self-care maintains wholeness (1971).
• Madeleine Leininger: Caring is universal and varies transculturally (1978).
• Imogene King: • General systems framework. • Transactions within the dyad of nurse and client.
• Margaret Newman: Total person approach to patient problems. Disease is a clue of preexisting life patterns (1979).
Definition of Health, Health Pattern, & Health Promotion
• Health: A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.
• Health pattern: A set of related traits, habits, or acts that affect a client’s health.
• Health promotion: Behavior motivated by the desire to increase well-being and actualize human potential.
Health Assessment & The Nursing Process
• Health assessment is a systematic method of collecting data about a client for the purposes of: • Determining the client’s current and ongoing health status.
• Predicting risks to health.
• Identifying health promotion activities.
• The nursing process is a systematic, rational, dynamic, and cyclic process used by the nurse to plan and provide care for the client.
Models of Health
• Ecological Model: Examines the interaction of agent, host, and environment.
• Clinical model: Health is defined as absence of disease or injury.
• Eudaemonistic models: View health as actualization and complete development. Illness prevents self-actualization.
• Health promotion model: Defines health as the actualization of inherent and acquired human potential through goal-directed behavior, competent self-care, and satisfying relationships with others.
Nursing Theories & Health Assessment
• Nurses must recognize that each client has a personal definition of health, illness, and wellness.
• Nurses must be aware of their own personal definition of health and accept and respect the client’s definition of health.
Nursing Theories & Health Assessment (continued)
• The importance of a theory depends on the professional and personal values of a person.
• Nurses choose a theory for guiding research, practice, and education.
• Nursing theory challenges existing practice and provides new ways to think about assessing clients and makes it possible for nurses to envision new approaches to practice.
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References & Resources
• Chin, P. L. & Kramer, M. K. (2008). Integrated Theory and Knowledge Development in Nursing. (7th Ed.), Mosby, Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri.
• Reed, P. G., Shearer, N. C., & Nicholls, L. H. (2004). Perspectives on Nursing Theory (4th Ed.), Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
• Bickley, L.S. (2007). Bates Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (9th Ed.). Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
• Damico, D. & Barbarito, C. (2007). Health & Physical Assessment in Nursing. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.