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Nursing homework help


Nursing Theories & Health Assessment

NUR 3069: Advanced Health Assessment

Key Terms

• Health and health pattern

• Holism

• Holistic

• Theory

• Nursing theory

• Health assessment

• Health promotion

Perspectives on Nursing Theory

• What is a theory as opposed to a conceptual framework?

• What is nursing theory?

• How do nursing theories relate to health assessment?

• What theory can nurses use?



Definition of Theory

• Theory: A creative and rigorous structuring of ideas that projects a tentative, purposeful, and systematic view of phenomena.

• Purpose: Theory is developed for a reason that can be identified and specifies the context and situation in which the theory applies.

Why Nursing Theory?

• Nursing theory: • Guides nursing education, research, and practice.

• Strengthens links between nurses in education, research, and practice.

• Contributes to a well-founded basis for practice.

• Helps nurses develop better understanding of factors affecting family function.

• Directs nurses to more specific purposes than merely filling a gap.

• Considers significant factors that influence nursing , and, therefore, helps nurses in nursing-specific situations.

Nursing Theorists

• Florence Nightingale: Environment is the central concept. • Viewed as all external conditions and influences affecting the life and development of an

organism (1860).

• Virginia Henderson: Mind and body are inseparable • No two individuals are alike; each is unique (1966).



Nursing Theorists (continued)

• Martha Rogers: • A science of unitary human beings.

• Person-environment are energy fields that evolve negentropically (1970).

• Family system approach.

• Callista Roy: Adaptation/Independence model (1974).

• Dorothea Orem: Self-care maintains wholeness (1971).

• Madeleine Leininger: Caring is universal and varies transculturally (1978).

• Imogene King: • General systems framework. • Transactions within the dyad of nurse and client.

• Margaret Newman: Total person approach to patient problems. Disease is a clue of preexisting life patterns (1979).

Definition of Health, Health Pattern, & Health Promotion

• Health: A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.

• Health pattern: A set of related traits, habits, or acts that affect a client’s health.

• Health promotion: Behavior motivated by the desire to increase well-being and actualize human potential.

Health Assessment & The Nursing Process

• Health assessment is a systematic method of collecting data about a client for the purposes of: • Determining the client’s current and ongoing health status.

• Predicting risks to health.

• Identifying health promotion activities.

• The nursing process is a systematic, rational, dynamic, and cyclic process used by the nurse to plan and provide care for the client.



Models of Health

• Ecological Model: Examines the interaction of agent, host, and environment.

• Clinical model: Health is defined as absence of disease or injury.

• Eudaemonistic models: View health as actualization and complete development. Illness prevents self-actualization.

• Health promotion model: Defines health as the actualization of inherent and acquired human potential through goal-directed behavior, competent self-care, and satisfying relationships with others.

Nursing Theories & Health Assessment

• Nurses must recognize that each client has a personal definition of health, illness, and wellness.

• Nurses must be aware of their own personal definition of health and accept and respect the client’s definition of health.

Nursing Theories & Health Assessment (continued)

• The importance of a theory depends on the professional and personal values of a person.

• Nurses choose a theory for guiding research, practice, and education.

• Nursing theory challenges existing practice and provides new ways to think about assessing clients and makes it possible for nurses to envision new approaches to practice.




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References & Resources

• Chin, P. L. & Kramer, M. K. (2008). Integrated Theory and Knowledge Development in Nursing. (7th Ed.), Mosby, Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri.

• Reed, P. G., Shearer, N. C., & Nicholls, L. H. (2004). Perspectives on Nursing Theory (4th Ed.), Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

• Bickley, L.S. (2007). Bates Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (9th Ed.). Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

• Damico, D. & Barbarito, C. (2007). Health & Physical Assessment in Nursing. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

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