The text states that IDEAs definition of a learning disability
is a student must have a disorder that manifests itself in an
imperfect ability to listen think speak read write spell or
do mathematical calculations. Current research is focusing on
exploring the extent to which the disconnection between regions due
to less than sufficient core white matter is at the base of math
disabilities. (Turnbull 107) Students with learning disabilities
typically excel in most academic areas and then fall behind in a
specific class such as high or above average intelligence in
reading and writing and a large deficit in math. This is a typical
sign of a learning disability.Specific learning disabilities are
reading disabilities which effect phonemic analysis word
identification reading fluency and reading comprehension. Math
disabilities effect procedural problems and fact retrieval. Many
students with learning disabilities have trouble with their short
term long term and working memory.
The text describes communication disorders as disorders that
relate to the components of the process affected: speech language
or both. (Turnbull 125)A communication disorder can manifest
itself in either a speech disorder which causes an individual to
have trouble producing sounds or speak in a typical cadence. A
language disorder can be either a deficit in receptive language
expressive language or both. An individual with a receptive
language disorder may have trouble with receiving information and
processing that information. For example giving a simple two step
command such as go put your toy away and bring me your shoes may be
a hard task for an individual with a receptive language disorder.
An expressive language disorder is when an individual has
difficulty with organizing information and then sharing that
information by using a verbal output. For example instead of a
student giving you a simple answer to a question they may go in a
very round about way as to explain something specific that may have
happened to them which may in some may connect to the topic at hand
and give you an answer to your question in a very puzzling way. In
other cases an individual may know exactly what they want but the
process of organizing the information and then expressing it
verbally may end up being two to three word utterances instead of a
complete thought or sentence. For example when my son who has both
receptive and an expressive language disorder wants an Oreo cookie
he does not say mom can I have an Oreo cookie? He loudly
states black cookie please. A communication disorder can be
assessed by a Speech and Language Pathologist who can then make
suggestions on the path to take. Some students may benefit from
speech therapy and others from a combination of speech therapy and
a type of communication system such as the PECS system or an AAC
My personal experience is that my three-year-old son Preston is
a child with autism. Autism has many co-morbid disorders mainly
speech and language. My son has a receptive and expressive language
disorder which has been extremely challenging but is progressing.
The first two and a half or so years of his life or maybe even
more was filled with screams and squeals because he was not able
to speak he never gestured and he would bang his head out of
frustration. It was all a huge guessing game. I did my own research
and found out how to make a PECS book and the different stages of
using a PECS book. I later switched to another AAC device on the
IPad which helped because it encouraged him to speak since he is
echolaliac. The description in the text of a communication disorder
is right on. However it just seems to touch on the disorder.
Echolalia is a whole other ball game!
Turnbull Ann A. H. Turnbull Michael Wehmeyer. Exceptional
Lives: Special Education in Today’s Schools 8th Edition. Pearson
20150204. VitalBook file.
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