GUIDE 6 Unit 2 ETRUSCANS & ANCIENT ROME I. THE ETRUSCANS Etruscan Necropolis The tombs (partly under the ground now) are our only source of information about amazing Etruscan culture. [Necropolis – the city of the dead]===================================================================Before the Romans gained supremacy over the Italian peninsula, the latter was inhabited by many indigenous peoples. Which one was the most significant?*… How long back does the Etruscans history date? – *… If you still remember the previous section (guide 5) and if you think historically, you should say here : ‘Aha, it means that the Etruscans lived at the same time when the Greeks lived, painting the vases with the geometric patterns, and carving the statues of youths with an enigmatic ‘archaic smiles’ on their lips. When two cultures coexist as neighbors, they always interact and influence each other. What did Etruria and Greece have in common? *… *… *… When did the Romans vanquish the last of the Etruscans? – *… ARCHITECTUREWhat is the only type of architecture that survived? – *…What were their interiors look like? – *…Why did the Etruscans want to duplicate their earthly environment? – *… Doesn’t it remind you about some other ancient civilization? Which one? – * … SCULPTURE How did we know what the exterior of Etruscan house looked? – *… TermsCINERARY URN – *… SARCOPHAGUS (pl. Sarcophagi) – *…. * Sarcophagus from Cerveteri – c. *… [when made?]What scene is depicted on top of the coffin? *… What can you say about the facial expressions of the spouses? Where did you see them before? – ….That’s right; they do resemble the Greek kouros and kore from the Archaic period. What is different – the mood. The early Greek statues look very rigid and solemnly. This is why the Greek Archaic style is also called severe style. Observe the faces of this couple reclining over the top of their sarcophagus. Do the spouses look ‘severe’ to you? Not really, right? Their joyful looks do not relate, in our perception, to a funerary object. It is not accidentally either that the ancient sculptors chose the scene of the banquet to be on the lid of their coffin. From what we know about the Etruscans, they seemed to be fun-loving people, spending life in numerous festivities. Well, that’s it about the Etruscans. Unfortunately, you have too little in your book about this exciting culture. Yet, now you know who the Etruscans were. You know that their culture laid the foundation for Rome. You should also remember that the Etruscans borrowed a lot from the Greek culture and passed it, along with their own achievements, further down the road – to the Romans. Let us move on to the next great civilizations entering the stage of its Majesty History – grand Rome. II. ANCIENT ROME Rome existed for one thousand years – 500 years before common era and 500 years after 500 B.C. – 500A.D. There were three major periods in the Roman History REPUBLIC – last 500 years B.C. EARLY EMPIRE – first 200 years A.D. LATE EMPIRE – next 300 years CLASSICAL WORLD TIMELINE Place on the timeline Greece, Etruscans, Roman Republic and Roman Empire (Early and Late) . [Type inside the frames] Roman Empire Greece ——————————————————————————————————– 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 O 100 200 300 400 50 Now start reading…. Short introduction on Rome and Roman art *… [when was it established?] * … [how far was it stretched?]***** Greco-Roman art – * Why did they come up with such a term? ATTN: Classical & Greco-Roman can be used as synonyms. Classical art is more common term though. THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD Please note, that paradoxically enough, in the history of Rome there was first a Republic and only then – Empire! If you think about the history of the Western world, usually the order is opposite. Example: French republic that emerged after the French revolution in 1789 and replaced the monarchy. History of Rome [provide short essay]*….*…*… Please read the first two paragraphs carefully put down what similarities you could observe between Rome and the one in the United States. In terms of the political system and law, I mean. Not because today many people would compare USA with Roman Empire – this is not a correct comparison. As you know, America does not have colonies and thus can not be called empire. Following the strict definitions it presents a classical example of republic. * PATRICIANS – * [pah-TRIH-shuns]PLEBEIANS – * [pleb-EE-uns]Here is more on terms. Plebs (pl. Plebes) – short of Plebeians – the common people of ancient Rome or members of the lower classes. SCULPTURE The Republican PeriodRome’s unique contribution to art – * In what way wasthe development of realistic portraiture connected with the cult of ancestors?*The Roman sculptural portraits exemplify the so-called harsh realism in art.Why do you think it is called harsh, and why realism to start with?* Head of a Roman Date: Material: ARCHITECTURE The Republican Period Architecture was the Rome’s greatest contribution to European culture. Please remember this! Temple of Fortuna Virilis *___[Century] My TtimeLine: B.C.–200——-100—– O —- 100—-…A.D.Indicate what was adopted from the Greeks. * What were the Roman innovations? *Which temples, Greek or Romans, were simpler and more focused on the function than aesthetics? *MONOLITHIC(e.g. column) – * [How does this type of column look as opposed to the Greek column – describe both]Actually you know both words: “mono” and “lithic – Remember the prehistoric guide? PAINTING The Republican Period What were the walls of the Roman houses decorated with? Describe two techniques used to create Murals (decorated walls) in Roman houses. FRESCO– MOSAIC – The mural ‘Ulysses’ – Observe the fresco and notice how well it gives the illusion (feeling/impression) of the three-dimensional space. If you stand inside the house the mural painting create an illusion of window or opening in the wall.We do not have any of the Greek wall painting survived but the art historians believe that it looked similar to *___ What event did mark the end of Republic and beginning of the Roman Empire?Who was the first Roman emperor? Tell shortly the story of Julius Caesar – an outstanding statesman who played a crucial role in the history of Rome. [you can even make a quick trip to the Net to learn more] Caius Julius Caesar (July 13, 100 – March 15, 44 BCE), statesman, general and author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium)and his subsequent coup d’ etat. * …… your story RE: Dictator. Note that “originally in ancient Rome, dictatorship was an extraordinary magistracy, perhaps best translated as ‘strong man’, http://www2.cs.uh.edu/~clifton/caesar.html#overview THE EARLY EMPIREThe dominant purpose of Roman art (the very first phrases)* What technologies and social benefits did Romans create and bring to the conquered areas that had become the parts of the new Roman Empire? [Choose the major ones] * * * * ARCHITECTURE The Early EmpireName two major innovations that the Romans contributed to the architecture. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ (Hope I counted the letters correctly Pont du Gardat Nimes, in __ [country] ___ [date][Pronounced like [pohn –due –Gahr at Nim]; the last letter in French is not pronounced.“Pont” is French word for “bridge”, but you know now that it is not what its function was]AQUEDUCT – * [Describe its function and design] Colosseum in Rome – the most spectacular remains and symbol of Rome! [Describe the construction and note what is said about the combination of arch and column]** ** AMPHITHEATER-* [define the term]Read “Compare + Contrast” pages on Stadium design. Write a few interesting facts. Mention how big the Colosseum is? How many spectators could be placed in it? Put down a few words describing the entertainment programs that took place in it. * * * Pantheonin *__ [Where?] What was the function of the Pantheon? *Describe the DOME as a central part of this temple: * How does coffered dome look? – *What is the oculus? -* Take time to go back to the Greek temple ParthenonMake sure you are not confused about these names of two temples. Let us repeat together one more time: Greek temple built in the5th century B.C. in Athens is called * Roman temple of the 2nd century A.D. in Rome is has a name of * SCUPLTURE The Early EmpireDid the sculpture of the Roman Empire change in comparison with the earlier art of the Republic? Tell me in what exactly way? * Stature ofAugustus – * [date]Analyze these changes using this stature as an example. Do not forget to mention who Augustus was.* Marcus Aurelius on Horseback * [when?] Equestrian portrait – * Define the term and describe this monument. If you have time read more about this remarkable emperor. Aurelius was perhaps the only true philosopher-king in the history of the world.He shared the basic Stoic belief in the divinity of the cosmos as an intelligent being with a soul, and stressed the harmony of all things and the importance of resigning to whatever happened. In his Meditations, a serious of books written to himself, he formulated his philosophy – the Stoic beliefs. Marcus Aurelius reigned from161 to 180 A.D. He seems to have been a good and conscientious ruler who was magnanimous toward his enemies. He banned informers, stamped down hard on corruption, and free slaves at every opportunity. Needing extra funds for his war in Eastern Europe, he refused to raise taxes but instead held an auction of his own golden tableware and of his wife’s silk and gold embroidered dresses. The Meditations were written day by day, in every situation including war. They often appear to be responses to the stress of supreme power, from the imminent fear of death in battle, to their trials of everyday life. STOIC PHILOSOPHY or STOICISM [Try to formulate its core beliefs – look up the Internet] *Here are a few of Aurelius Meditations…’At dawn of day, when you dislike being called, have this thought ready: ‘I am called to man’s labour; why then do I make a difficulty if I am going out to do what I was born to do and what I was brought into the world for?” “Do not act as if thou wert going to live ten thousand years. Death hangs over thee. While thou livest, while it is in thy power, be good. “How much trouble he avoids who does not look to see what his neighbour says or does or thinks, but only to what he does himself, that it may be just and pure; or as Agathon says, look not round at the depraved morals of others, but run straight along the line without deviating from it. http://www.roman-emperors.org/marcaur.htm . THE LATE EMPIREWhat happened in Rome during the 3rd century A.D., when the period of Late Empire started? ** * * Basilicaof Maxentius and Constantine – a new architectural form.What was its function? – *How many sections or aisles was it divided into? – *What was the name of a central aisle? – * What was the historical role basilica’s plan played in the history of art? * FORUM – * Head of Constantine the GreatProvide some information on Constantine and his impact on Christianity. *What changes in art does it illustrate? * ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS Very important – will be asked on the test Those terms define the basic elements that would be used in European architecture for centuries to come. If you are going to print this guide – you could make simple (very simple) drawings in order to remember them – this a great study technique. You can look the terms up on the Internet. POST & LINTEL construction – ARCH – VAULT – BARREL VAULT – GROIN VAULT – DOME – The guide is done. Did it feel like a long one? Yet, this was just a glimpse on the one of the most astounding periods in the history of humanity. Now let us move on to the next guide and observe a dramatic turn made by Her Majesty History after the Roman Empire declines. Colosseum, Rome. 19th century painting.
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