Explain how the crisis situation in each community affected the overall health of the community.
July 11, 2019
illustrate the usage of either CRISP-DM or SEMMA for that application: e.g. in the data preparation phase of CRISPDM describe the specific data sources you would use for that application
July 11, 2019

Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness

CULTURALCARE

There is something that transcends all of this I am I . . . You are you Yet. I and you Do connect Somehow, sometime.

To understand the “cultural” needs Samenesses and differences of people Needs an open being See—Hear—Feel With no judgment or interpretation Reach out Maybe with that physical touch Or eyes, or aura You exhibit your openness and willingness to Listen and learn And, you tell and share In so doing—you share humanness It is acknowledged and shared Something happens— Mutual understanding

—Rachel E. Spector

Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness

E I G H T H E D I T I O N

Rachel E. Spector, PhD, RN, CTN-A, FAAN Needham, MA 02494

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ISBN-13: 978-0-13-284006-4 ISBN-10: 0-13-284006-5

Editor-in-Chief: Julie Levin Alexander Executive Acquisitions Editor: Kim Norbuta Senior Marketing Manager: Phoenix Harvey Managing Editor, Production: Central

Publishing Production Editor: Saraswathi Muralidhar,

PreMediaGlobal

Production Manager: Tom Benfatti Creative Director: Jayne Conte Cover Designer: Bruce Kenselaar Composition: PreMediaGlobal Printer/Binder: RR Donnelley & Sons Cover Printer: RR Donnelley & Sons

Notice: Care has been taken to confirm the accuracy of information presented in this book. The author, editors, and the publisher, however, cannot accept any responsibility for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the information in this book and make no warranty, express or implied, with respect to its contents.

The authors and publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selections and dosages set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package inserts of all drugs for any change in indications of dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.

Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

Pearson Prentice Hall™ is a trademark of Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson® is a registered trademark of Pearson plc Prentice Hall® is a registered trademark of Pearson Education, Inc.

Pearson Education Ltd., London Pearson Education North Asia Ltd., Hong Kong Pearson Education Singapore, Pte. Ltd. Pearson Educación de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Pearson Education Canada, Inc., Toronto Pearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Ltd. Pearson Education—Japan Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, Pearson Education Australia PTY, Limited New Jersey

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Spector, Rachel E. Cultural diversity in health and illness/Rachel E. Spector.—8th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-284006-4 ISBN-10: 0-13-284006-5 1. Transcultural medical care—United States. 2. Health attitudes—United States. 3. Transcultural nursing—United States. I. Title. RA418.5.T73S64 2013 610—dc23 2012012708

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

I would like to dedicate this text to

My husband, Manny; Sam, Hilary, Julia, and Emma; Becky, Perry, Naomi, Rose, and Miriam; the memory of my parents, Joseph J. and Freda F. Needleman, and my in-laws, Sam and Margaret Spector; and the memory of my beloved mentor, Irving Kenneth Zola.

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Contents

PREFACE xi

ABOUT THE AUTHOR xvii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xviii

UNIT I CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS 1

Chapter 1 Building Cultural and Linguistic Competence 3 National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically

Appropriate Services in Health Care 8 Cultural Competence 11 Linguistic Competence 11 Institutional Mandates 12 CULTURALCARE 13

Chapter 2 Cultural Heritage and History 19 Heritage Consistency 20 Acculturation Themes 29 Ethnocultural Life Trajectories 32 Commingling Variables 34 Cultural Conflict 36 Cultural Phenomena Affecting Health 37

Chapter 3 Diversity 43 Census 2010 45 Immigration 48 Poverty 54

Chapter 4 Health and Illness 62 Health 63 Illness 74

UNIT II HEALTH DOMAINS 85

Chapter 5 HEALTH Traditions 89 HEALTH and ILLNESS 91 HEALTH Traditions Model 92 HEALTH Protection 95 Health/HEALTH Care Choices 102

vii

viii ■ Contents

Folk Medicine 104 Health/HEALTH Care Philosophies 108

Chapter 6 HEALING Traditions 120 HEALING 121 Ancient Forms of HEALING 123 Religion and HEALING 124 HEALING and Today’s Beliefs 136 Ancient Rituals Related to the Life Cycle 138

Chapter 7 Familial HEALTH Traditions 158 Familial Health/HEALTH Traditions 160 Consciousness Raising 171

Chapter 8 Health and Illness in Modern Health Care 178 The Health Care Provider’s Culture 179 Health Care Costs 182 Trends in Development of the Health Care System 187 Common Problems in Health Care Delivery 191 Pathways to Health Services 195 Barriers to Health Care 197 Medicine as an Institution of Social Control 199

UNIT III HEALTH AND ILLNESS PANORAMAS 207

Chapter 9 HEALTH and ILLNESS in the American Indian and Alaska Native Population 210 Background 211 Traditional Definitions of HEALTH and ILLNESS 213 Traditional Methods of HEALING 215 Current Health Care Problems 222 The Indian Health Service 228

Chapter 10 HEALTH and ILLNESS in the Asian Populations 238 Background 239 Traditional Definitions of HEALTH and ILLNESS 241 Traditional Methods of HEALTH Maintenance

and Protection 246 Traditional Methods of HEALTH Restoration 247 Current Health Problems 257

Chapter 11 HEALTH and ILLNESS in the Black Population 265 Background 266 Traditional Definitions of HEALTH and ILLNESS 270 Traditional Methods of HEALTH Maintenance

and Protection 271

Contents ■ ix

Traditional Methods of HEALTH Restoration 272 Current Health Problems 279

Chapter 12 HEALTH and ILLNESS in the Hispanic Populations 291 Background 292 Mexicans 294 Puerto Ricans 308

Chapter 13 HEALTH and ILLNESS in the White Populations 323 Background 324 German Americans 326 Italian Americans 330 Polish Americans 334 Health Status of the White Population 339

Chapter 14 CULTURALCOMPETENCE 345 CULTURALCOMPETENCY 351

Appendix A Selected Key Terms Related to Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness 354

Appendix B Calendar: Cultural and Religious Holidays That Change Dates 364

Appendix C Suggested Course Outline 367

Appendix D Suggested Course Activity—Urban Hiking 373

Appendix E Heritage Assessment Tool 376

Appendix F Quick Guide for CULTURALCARE 379

Appendix G Data Resources 381

BIBLIOGRAPHY 383

 

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