In an article entitled “Science and ethics in conducting, analyzing, and reporting psychological research” in the journal Psychological Science (1994), psychologist Robert Rosenthal examines the relationship between a researcher’s methods and the ethical implications of these methods. In particular, he examines what he terms “”causism,”” defined as “the tendency to imply a causal relationship where none has been established (i.e., where the data do not support it)” (p.128). He goes on to state that causism can arise from the language chosen to describe the results of hypothesis tests, especially when authors use words such as “”consequence”” or “”cause”” instead of “”related to”” or “”inferred from.”” He argues that the stronger language can be misleading, causing the result to “appear more important or fundamental than it really is” (p. 128). This, in turn, misleads the public into drawing conclusions or implementing policies that could be based on faulty assumptions. With this in mind, read the following excerpt from the Discussion section of a hypothetical research study by Dewey, Cheatum, and Howe linking prenatal vitamins with a certain birth defect called Birth Defect X, and answer the questions that follow.
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Note : Values for column 3 are t scores
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