subject: Scientific Reasoning
Please show a) understanding of the relevant general principles involved in inductive generalization and causal inference and (b) identify the specific challenges that would confront an attempt to answer the specific
research question!!! Please directly answer the question using principles in lectures under ‘files’.
Please write four of the questions.
Please write 180 words for each one of the question.
1. Consider the claim that ‘About 8% of American college students consider suicide each year.’ Describe, step by step, how a team of social scientists would go about justifying this claim, and flag up any reasons to be cautious about it.
2. Outline the steps needed to show that receiving private music tuition, such as piano or cello lessons, is correlated with good performance in the math portion of the SAT. Explain further why such correlations may indicate, though need not imply, that learning a musical instrument promotes general educational aptitude.
3. Describe systemtically how we could ascertain whether a relatively expensive alternative medicine, such as a blend of rare herbs acquired from a specialist, was causally effective as a treatment of anxiety in women, and identify the advantages of this method over a rival method.
4. The anti-vivesection lobby have used the thalidomide case to argue that animal testing doesn’t work; others, by contrast, have argued that it shows that it does work ‘if done properly’. What do you think the lesson of this episode is for the question of whether testing drugs on animals gives reliable results regarding the safety of drugs for humans?
5. Identify two distinct sorts of studies that could be conducted, by scientists with limited budgets, to assess whether high-protein diets such as the Atkins diet pose long-term risks to health. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of each sort of study. Given that each has disadvantages, do you think that science can assist us in making healthy dietary choices?